Somalia: The hidind history’s you will know

http://www.mercenary-wars.net

SOLDIERS OF FORTUNE

MERCENARY WARS

Select Language

 

Somalia

To enlage click onto photo repeat to shrink

Map source

600s  Arab tribes establish the sultanate of Adel on the Gulf of Aden coast. 

1500 – 1600  Portuguese traders land on the east coast of Africa and start intermittent power struggles with the Sultanate of Zanzibar for control of port cities and surrounding towns. 

1840  The British East India Company signs treaties with the Sultan of Tajura for unrestricted trading rights.

1860s  France acquires foothold on the Somali coast, later to become Djibouti.

1875  Egypt occupies towns on Somali coast and parts of the interior.

1887   Britain proclaims protectorate over Somaliland after reaching  a final agreement with the local King Menelik and various tribal chiefs and draws a boundary with neighbouring Ethiopia to form British Somaliland. Besides trading interests, the British protectorate serves as a counterweight to the growing Italian influence in the key port city of neighbouring Zanzibar.

1888  Anglo-French agreement defines boundary between Somali possessions of the two countries.

1889  Italy sets up a protectorate in central Somalia, later consolidated with territory in the south ceded by the sultan of Zanzibar. 

1897 – 1907  Italy makes several agreements with tribal chiefs and the British to finally mark out the boundaries of a separate Italian protectorate of Somaliland. 

1908  The Italian Government assumes direct administration of Italian Somaliland, giving the territory a colonial status. 

1925  Territory east of the Jubba river detached from Kenya to become the westernmost part of the Italian protectorate. 

1936  Following decades of expansionism, Italy captures Addis Ababa and Ethiopia to form the province of Italian East Africa. 

June 1940 Italian troops drive out the British garrison and capture British Somaliland. 

1941  British recapture British Somaliland and most of Italian Somaliland. 

1941- 1959 Meanwhile, British Somaliland sees a period of colonial development as the territory moves towards a gradual development of local institutions and self-government. 

1947  Following Italy’s defeat in World War II, Italy renounces all rights and titles to Italian Somaliland. 

1950 The U.N. General Assembly adopts a resolution making Italian Somaliland a U.N. trust territory under Italian administrative control. 

1956  Italian Somaliland renamed Somalia and granted internal autonomy. 

1960 British and Italian Somaliland gain independence and merge to form the United Republic of Somalia. 

1960 – 1969 Two successive democratically elected governments attempt to balance the expansionist interests of pro-Arab, pan-Somali factions with interests in Somali-inhabited areas of Ethiopia and Kenya, and “modernist” factions whose priorities include economic and social development. 

1963  Border dispute with Kenya, diplomatic relations with Britain broken until 1968.

1964  Border dispute with Ethiopia erupts into hostilities.

1967  Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke beats Aden Abdullah Osman Daar in elections for president. 

October 1969 Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre seizes power in a coup. Democratically elected President Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke is assassinated. 

1970  Siad declares Somalia a socialist nation and undertakes literacy programs and planned economic development under the principles of “scientific socialism.” 

1972 – 1977 A period of persistent border clashes with Ethiopia for control of Ethiopia’s Ogaden region, which also sees a severe drought in the region that leads to widespread starvation. 

1974 Somalia and the Soviet Union sign a treaty of friendship. Somalia also joins the Arab League. 

1974-75  Severe drought causes widespread starvation.

1977 Somalia invades the Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia. 

1978 Following a gradual shifting of Soviet favour from Somalia to Ethiopia and the infusions of Soviet arms and Cuban troops to Ethiopia, Somali troops are pushed out of Ethiopian territory. 

1978 – 1990 A period of growing cooperation and strategic alliance between Somalia and the West begins. The United States becomes Somalia’s chief partner in defence and several Somali military officers are trained in U.S. military schools. 

1981  Opposition to Barre’s regime begins to emerge after he excludes members of the Mijertyn and Isaq clans from government positions, which are filled with people from his own Marehan clan.

1988  Peace accord with Ethiopia.

1991 At the end of a period of growing domestic factionalism, insurgency and an open war with clans in northwest Somalia that have left the country in economic shambles and forced thousands of Somalis to flee their homes, Siad is ousted by opposition clans and forced to flee to Nigeria, where he ultimately dies.

1991  Former British protectorate of Somaliland declares unilateral independence. 

December 1992 U.S. troops lead a U.N. peacekeeping mission to Somalia, under Operation Restore Hope, which begins with the arrival of 1,800 U.S. Marines landing at night on a Mogadishu beach. The peacekeeping mission included providing humanitarian assistance to Somalis and bringing peace to the troubled country. But while the humanitarian mission is quickly achieved, the peacekeeping force finds itself dragged into Somalia’s internecine battles. 

October 1993 For the United States, Operation Restore Hope reaches its nadir when members of the U.S. Army’s elite Delta Force and the Army Rangers are used to raid warlord headquarters and abduct them. In one such raid, the U.S. forces are dropped into a Mogadishu neighbourhood to snatch two lieutenants of warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid. While the snatch and grab operation is successfully accomplished, trouble starts when two U.S. Black Hawk helicopters are shot down by rocket-propelled grenades. As U.S. Army Rangers attempt to rescue the crews of the downed helicopters, a mob of armed militiamen and angry Somalis descend on the site. A horrific carnage follows that ends only 15 hours later when a combined U.S./U.N. armoured convoy manages to reach the trapped Rangers and Delta operators. But for the world, the mission in Somalia would forever be gruesomely remembered for the 18 U.S. Army Rangers killed and footage of the exultant crowds dragging naked, mutilated bodies through the streets of Mogadishu. Despite domestic outrage, the U.S. continues to play a major role in the mission until 1994. 

1994 President Bill Clinton orders the withdrawal of the 30,000 U.S. troops on Somali soil. 

1995 Following the withdrawal of U.S. forces, the vanguard of the 21-nation Operation Restore Hope, the U.N. peacekeepers leave after an unsuccessful operation amidst charges of cruelty and even the murder of Somalis. By the end of the operation, dozens of U.N. peacekeepers were killed and hundreds of Somalis died at the hands of U.S. and U.N. forces. 

1996  Warlord Muhammad Aideed dies of his wounds and is succeeded by his son, Hussein.

1997 Following a complete administrative collapse, chiefs of some rival clans meet in the Egyptian capital of Cairo and agree to convene a conference to look into rival claims to Somalia. 

1998  Puntland region declares autonomy. 

August 2000 In the 13th such attempt to form a government, Somali warlords and militiamen meet in neighbouring Djibouti for peace talks organized by Djibouti President Omar Guellah. They elect Abdulkassim Salat Hassan president of Somalia. Hassan appoints Ali Khalif Gelayadh as his prime minister. But even as the new government attempts to start the parliamentary process in exile in Djibouti, some powerful warlords, notably Hossein Mohammed Aideed and Mohamed Ibrahim Egal do not recognize Hassan’s election. But Mogadishu’s most powerful clan leader, Ali Mahdi Mohamed, promises his support. 

October 2000 Hassan arrives in Mogadishu to a hero’s welcome and tight security. Gelayadh puts together a Cabinet of ministers, Somalia’s first government in 10 years. But Hassan’s administration has difficulty establishing control outside Mogadishu. 

March 2001 Aideed announces that he has patched up his differences with clan leaders Muse Sudi Yalahow and Osman Hassan Ali Atto and calls for a replacement of Hassan’s transitional government following a meeting between the leaders in the Kenyan capital of Nairobi. Meanwhile, opposition to Hassan has seen fighting rage on in the southern parts of the country as drought, security concerns and the criminalization of refugee camps along the Somali-Kenyan border periodically compels Kenya to halt cross-border trade, thereby further crippling the economically crumbling East African country. 

April 2001 Somali warlords, backed by Ethiopia, announce their intention to form a national government within six months, in direct opposition to the country’s transitional administration.

August 2001 UN appeals for food aid for half a million people in the drought-hit south.

August 2004 In 14th attempt since 1991 to restore central government, a new transitional parliament inaugurated at ceremony in Kenya. In October the body elects Abdullahi Yusuf as president.

December 2004 Tsunami waves generated by an undersea earthquake off Indonesia hit the Somali coast and the island of Hafun. Hundreds of deaths are reported; tens of thousands of people are displaced.

February – June 2005 Somali government begins returning home from exile in Kenya, but there are bitter divisions over where in Somalia the new parliament should sit.

November 2005 Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi survives an assassination attempt in Mogadishu. Gunmen attack his convoy, killing six people.

February 2006 Transitional parliament meets in Somalia – in the central town of Baidoa – for the first time since it was formed in Kenya in 2004.

March – May 2006 Scores of people are killed and hundreds are injured during fierce fighting between rival militias in Mogadishu. It is the worst violence in almost a decade. 

June – July 2006 Militias loyal to the Union of Islamic Courts take control of Mogadishu and other parts of the south after defeating clan warlords.

July – August 2006  Mogadishu’s air and seaports are re-opened for the first time since 1995.

September 2006  Transitional government and the Union of Islamic Courts begin peace talks in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. Somalia’s first known suicide bombing targets President Yusuf outside parliament in Baidoa.

October 2006

Somalia cuts ties for Saudi coalition

Middle East and AfricaSomalia

Tweet

Share

Google+

Photo: reporter# Shakir Essa

Somali Prime Miniser Hassan Ali Khaire in Qatar (file photo).

Somalia on Wednesday broke its silence over the ongoing Qatar crisis and asked countries involved to seek dialogue.

“The Federal Republic of Somalia deeply concerned about the diplomatic row between the brotherly Arab countries” a statement from the Foreign Affairs Ministry said.

“Somalia calls to all countries involved to settle their differences through dialogue ans within the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation” it stated.

The statement further said that Somalia is ready to give a helping hand to resolve the Qatar crisis.

Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states last week cut ties with Qatar accusing it of funding terror activities in the region.

With more than 7 countries following afterwards to back Riyadh and UAE decision all eyes were on Somalia to know what move it will make.

Recently Somalia backed Saudi Arabia regarding Iran and Sweden but it took time before Somalia spoke on the Qatar crisis.

The Farmaajo administration is said to be enjoying a cordial relation with Doha.

Newly appointed Chief Of Staff Fahad Yassin has been said to be Farmaajo’s linkman to Doha with talk that the Gulf State may have partly funded his election campaign.

Qatar TV on Tuesday ran a storyon how it had financially backed Somalia over the years in what analyst as a reminder to Farmaajo not to side with Saudi Arabia.

Somalia has for a third day in a row allowed Qatar Airways to use its airspace after banning from Guf neighbors.

PREVIOUS STORY

NEXT STORY

Qatar Flights Using Somali Airspace After Gulf Ban

Qatar Flights Using Somali Airspace After Gulf Ban

Next Story

First Russian diplomat sets foot in Somaliland for over 38 years

© Medeshi news

Sourced news about the Horn of Africa and beyon

Thursday, May 11, 2017

First Russian diplomat sets foot in Somaliland for over 38 years

Somaliland – (MoFA) – The Foreign Minister met with the Deputy Consular of Russia Yury Kourchakov who is based in Djibouti.
This was the first time a Russian diplomat set foot in Somaliland for over 38 years.
This occasion was a meet and greet for the Consular to meet the Foreign Minister, and to discuss enhancing ties between the two states.
 

Dr. Saad Shire (Left) and  Yury Kourchakov
The Foreign Minister explained the struggle Somaliland faced and with virtually no help, Somaliland has earned the label of “emerging democracy” . Somaliland is a remarkable success story that cannot be denied while its neighbor Somalia is unstable. Foreign Minister said ” The Republic of Somaliland should get the international recognition it deserves not only because it is right, but because it is in the best interests of the World for the sake of stability and peace in the region.”
The Representative of Somaliland in Djibouti travelled along with the Deputy Consular of Russia to Somaliland and met prior to this meeting they both had a fruitful discussion. The Representative of Somaliland went on to say “I hope you will see the peace and stability Somaliland enjoys while we travel to Berbera and historical places of Somaliland.”
The Russian Diplomat thanked the Foreign Minister for their warm reception and hopes to revisit Somaliland. The Republic of Somaliland and Russia hope to increase its cooperation to strengthen the economic ties that will be beneficial for both countries

Shakir Essa biography

Shakir Essa is a senior journalist and news tv reporter, he takes a big role on somali social media,
He wrote a famous book of ” We are behind the curtain and the ogaal daily program
currently based on cincinnati Ohio, united states
FB_IMG_1546353794356

More info about Shakir Essa

The Shakir Essa Report, first aired January 2012, is a thirty-minutes, weekly investigative documentary in which he reports on African immigrant stories northern Africa, Libya and Tunisia. Shakir Essa is a social media activist in east african communities he served as manager at somali journalists and producer of Somali Today Tv

BIOGRAPHY

Shakir Essa was born in mid  1980s in the jameecada district of HargeisaSomaliland.[3] He attended high school in Hargeisa,

He later studied Telecommunication technologyat the international Horn University,where he earned a Bachelor of Arts. In 2004, he moved to Malaysia and pursued an advanced degree in Telecommunication Engineering at the TIU in malaysia .[3] He later on attended the cyber security and and advanced information technology at University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, USA.

shaakir7

He is also multilingual, speaking SomaliUrduArabicand English

FBI administrative processing

Administrative Processing FBI Name checks A DV2015 selectee from the immigration.com forum named Martin has done a bit of research on the FBI name checks. These checks are not specific to DV lottery selectees, but the information gives an insight into some of the reasons why some cases are more likely to go on AP than others. In some countries there is a high chance of AP, in other countries it will happen rarely. I have also speculated that KCC might be calling for some of these checks as part of the DS260 processing – and that might be something introduced this year with the new DS260 system. Perhaps I am giving USCIS/DoS too much credit – but if true it would at least explain why the DS260s are talking so long to process compared with the previous paper based process. That would be advantageous to DV lottery selectees because as annoying as it is waiting for the DS260 to be completed, AP is far more detrimental since many AP checks failed to finish in previous years. Starting those checks earlier in the process would give AP cases a better chance to complete in time. My thanks to Martin for this informative piece! The Office of the Secretary of State for Visa Services maintains, that the FBI background check is a necessary process for sifting out terrorists, spies, and people that illegally transfer sensitive technologies. It also claims it only affects 2% of applicants, so if you’re unlucky to be chosen, be prepared to wait 12-360 days for a response, which might be a revocation of your previously approved visa. Most times, though, you would be approved. The background check level you get depends on the application data or, specifically, nationality, you will be assigned one or more categories or class. These are code named: Mantis: (potential illegal transfer of sensitive technology) Bear (for foreign government officials, representatives to international organisations, and their families) Donkey (name hits, certain nationalities) Merlin (for refugees and asylum seekers) Eagle(certain nationals of Cuba, China, Russia, Iran, Vietnam) Condor (certain nationalities e.g. Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen.) Hawk (for immigrant visas). Horse (diplomatic visa holders of certain nationalities) Pegasus (officials of Commonwealth of Independent States) Afterwards, your information is forwarded to the pertinent agencies for a very thorough check– mostly FBI. Others could be CIA, DEA, U.S. Department of Commerce, Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, Interpol, and the Department of State’s Bureau of International Security and Non-proliferation. This is where the delay really occurs. If everything goes well, you can have your approved visa in as little as three weeks, but if there is a problem of any sort, a delay could be anything from 30 days to 360 days. The most painful part is that you don’t know exactly how long it’s going to take, and there are no step by step updates, so you are stuck in a timeless time of waiting. Here are some reasons for delay: 1. Errors in the visa submission : The US Embassy from the country you are applying might mistakenly submit your information in a wrong format (different from what the agencies want), so the agency returns the data to the embassy. This obviously prolongs the security check and approval process. This situation happens every now and then, but it seems that the various agencies are working to standardise the submission format, which would help reduce such mistakes. 2. False Hits(Especially for Visas Mantis and Visas Condor): If your name matches that of someone on the FBI’s (or any other agency’s) list, you will be subjected to more scrutiny till you are either cleared or marked as a concern to security. Imagine if you are from a country wi Copyright Britty Simon Posted by Shakir Essa

The 5 Principles of Journalism, ✔ check facts

The 5 Principles of Ethical Journalism
The core principles of ethical journalism set out below provide an excellent base for everyone who aspires to launch themselves into the public information sphere to show responsibility in how they use information.

There are hundreds of codes of conduct, charters and statements made by media and professional groups outlining the principles, values and obligations of the craft of journalism.

Most focus on five common themes:

Five Core Principles of Journalism
1. Truth and Accuracy
Journalists cannot always guarantee ‘truth’, but getting the facts right is the cardinal principle of journalism. We should always strive for accuracy, give all the relevant facts we have and ensure that they have been checked. When we cannot corroborate information we should say so.

2. Independence
Journalists must be independent voices; we should not act, formally or informally, on behalf of special interests whether political, corporate or cultural. We should declare to our editors – or the audience – any of our political affiliations, financial arrangements or other personal information that might constitute a conflict of interest.

3. Fairness and Impartiality
Most stories have at least two sides. While there is no obligation to present every side in every piece, stories should be balanced and add context. Objectivity is not always possible, and may not always be desirable (in the face for example of brutality or inhumanity), but impartial reporting builds trust and confidence.

4. Humanity
Journalists should do no harm. What we publish or broadcast may be hurtful, but we should be aware of the impact of our words and images on the lives of others.

5. Accountability
A sure sign of professionalism and responsible journalism is the ability to hold ourselves accountable. When we commit errors we must correct them and our expressions of regret must be sincere not cynical. We listen to the concerns of our audience. We may not change what readers write or say but we will always provide remedies when we are unfair.

Does journalism need new guidelines?
EJN supporters do not believe that we need to add new rules to regulate journalists and their work in addition to the responsibilities outlined above, but we do support the creation of a legal and social framework, that encourages journalists to respect and follow the established values of their craft.

In doing so, journalists and traditional media, will put themselves in a position to be provide leadership about what constitutes ethical freedom of expression. What is good for journalism is also good for others who use the Internet or online media for public communications.

Accountable Journalism
This collaborative project aims to be the world’s largest collection of ethical codes of conduct and press organisations.

The AccountableJournalism.org website has been developed as a resource to on global media ethics and regulation systems, and provides advice on ethical reporting and dealing with hate speech.

Journalist and data media publisher
Shakir Essa

Isaaq clan

Isaaq

Main article: Somali people

The Isaaq (also IsaqIshaakIsaac) (SomaliReer Sheekh IsaxaaqArabic: بني إسحاق‎) is a Somali clan.[1] It is one of the major Somali clans in the Horn of Africa, with a large and densely populated traditional territory.[2]

  
The tomb of Sheikh Ishaaq, the founding father of the Isaaq clan, in MaydhSanaag
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Somali
Religion
Islam (Sunni)
Related ethnic groups
DirDarodHawiyeRahanweyn, other Somalis

Overview

Portrait of Sultan Abdillahi Deria, the grand Sultan of Ishaaq clans.Sultan Nur with Habr Yunis horsemen 1896

According to some genealogical books and Somali tradition, the Isaaq clan was founded in the 13th or 14th century with the arrival of Sheikh Ishaaq Bin Ahmed Bin Mohammed Al Hashimi (Sheikh Ishaaq) from Arabia, a descendant of Ali ibn Abi Talib in Maydh.[3][4] He settled in the coastal town of Maydh in modern-day northwestern Somaliland, where he married into the local Magaadle clan.[5]

There are also numerous existing hagiologies in Arabic which describe Sheikh Ishaaq’s travels, works and overall life in modern Somaliland, as well as his movements in Arabia before his arrival.[6] Besides historical sources, one of the more recent printed biographies of Sheikh Ishaaq is the Amjaad of Sheikh Husseen bin Ahmed Darwiish al-Isaaqi as-Soomaali, which was printed in Aden in 1955.[7]

Sheikh Ishaaq’s tomb is in Maydh, and is the scene of frequent pilgrimages.[6] Sheikh Ishaaq’s mawlid (birthday) is also celebrated every Thursday with a public reading of his manaaqib (a collection of glorious deeds).[5] His Siyaara or pilgrimage is performed annually both within Somaliland and in the diaspora particularly in the Middle East among Isaaq expatriates.

Distribution

Haggenmacher’s map depicting western Isaaq territory

The Isaaq have a very wide and densely populated traditional territory. They live in all 6 regions of Somaliland such as AwdalWoqooyi GalbeedTogdheerSahilSanaag and Sool. They have large settlements in the Somali region of Ethiopia, mainly on the eastern side of Somali region also known as the Hawd and formerly Reserve Area which is mainly inhabited by the Isaaq sub-clan members. They also have large settlements in both Kenya and Djibouti, making up a large percentage of the Somali population in these 2 countries respectively.[8]

The Isaaq clan constitute the largest Somali clan in Somaliland. The populations of five major cities in Somaliland – HargeisaBuraoBerberaErigavo and Gabiley – are all predominantly Isaaq.[9] They exclusively dominate the Woqooyi Galbeed region, and the Togdheer region, and form a majority of the population inhabiting the western and central areas of Sanaag region, including the regional capital Erigavo.[10] The Isaaq also have a large presence in the western and northern parts of Sool region as well,[11] with Habr Je’lo sub-clan of Isaaq living in the Aynabo district whilst the Habr Yunis subclan of Garhajis lives in the eastern part of Xudun district and the very western part of Las Anod district.[12] They also live in the northeast of the Awdal region, with Saad Muse sub-clan being centered around Lughaya and its environs.

The populations of five major cities in Somaliland – HargeisaBurao,[13] BerberaErigavo and Gabiley – are predominantly Isaaq.[14][15]An illustration depicting a Somali woman of the Isaaq clan published in Bilder-Atlas in 1870

History

The Isaaq clan played a prominent role in the Abyssinian-Adal war (1529–1543, referred to as the “Conquest of Abyssinia”) in the army of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi,[16] I. M. Lewis noted that only the Habr Magadle division (Ayoub, Garhajis, Habr Awal and Arap) of the Isaaq were mentioned in chronicles of that war written by Shihab Al-Din Ahmad Al-Gizany known as Futuh Al Habash.[17]

I. M. Lewis states:[18]

The Marrehan and the Habr Magadle [Magādi] also play a very prominent role (…) The text refers to two Ahmads’s with the nickname ‘Left-handed’. One is regularly presented as ‘Ahmad Guray, the Somali’ (…) identified as Ahmad Guray Xuseyn, chief of the Habr Magadle. Another reference, however, appears to link the Habr Magadle with the Marrehan. The other Ahmad is simply referred to as ‘Imam Ahmad’ or simply the ‘Imam’.This Ahmad is not qualified by the adjective Somali (…) The two Ahmad’s have been conflated into one figure, the heroic Ahmed Guray (…)

Sultans of the Isaaq clan in Hargeisa, Somaliland

The first of the tribes to reach Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi were Habr Magādle of the Isaaq clan with their chieftain Ahmad Gurey Bin Hussain Al-Somali,[19] the Somali commander was noted to be one of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi’s “strongest and most able generals”.[20] The Habr Magādle clan were highly appreciated and praised by the leader Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi for their bravery and loyalty.[21]Dervish Commander Haji Sudi on the left with his brother in-law Duale Idris (1892).

Long after the collapse of Adal Sultanate, sub-clans of the Isaaq established successor states known as Garhajis Sultanates. These two Sultanates exerted a somewhat centralized authority (relative to other clans) during its existence, and possessed some of the organs and trappings of a traditional integrated state: a functioning bureaucracy, regular taxation in the form of livestock, as well as an army (chiefly consisting of mounted light cavalry).[22][23][24][25] These sultanates also maintained written records of their activities, which still exist.[26]

The Isaaq clan also played a major role in the Dervish movement, with Sultan Nur Aman of the Habr Yunis being fundamental in the inception of the movement. Sultan Nur was the principle agitator that rallied the dervish behind his anti-French Catholic Mission campaign that would become the cause of the dervish uprise.[27] Haji Sudi of the Habr Je’lo was the highest ranking Dervish after Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, he died valiantly defending the Taleh fort during the RAF bombing campaign.[28][29][30] The Isaaq sub-clans that were highly known for joining the Dervish movement were from the eastern Habr Yunis and Habr Je’lo sub-clans. These two sub-clans were able to purchase advanced weapons and successfully resist both British Empire and Ethiopian Empire for many years.[31]

The Isaaq clan along with other northern Somali tribes were under British Somaliland protectorate administration from 1884 to 1960. On gaining independence, the Somaliland protectorate decided to form a union with Italian Somalia. The Isaaq clan spearheaded the greater Somalia quest from 1960 to 1991.

During the Somali Civil War, the Isaaq were subjected to a genocidal campaign by Siad Barre‘s troops (which also included armed Somali refugees from Ethiopia); the death toll has been estimated to be between 50,000 and 200,000.

After the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic in 1991 the Isaaq-dominated Somaliland declared independence from Somalia as a separate nation.[32]

Mercantilism

Historically (and presently to a degree), the wider Isaaq clan were relatively more disposed to trade than their tribal counterparts due in part to their centuries old trade links with the Arabian Peninsula. In view of this imbalance in mercantile experience, other major Somali clans tended to resort to tribal slang terms such as “iidoor”, an enviable pejorative roughly meaning trader/exchanger:

Somalis bandied about numerous stereotypes of clan behavior that mirrored these emerging social inequalities. The pejorative slang terms iidoor or kabadhe iidoora (loosely meaning “exchange”) reflect Somali disdain for the go-between, the person who amasses wealth through persistence and mercantile skills without firm commitments to anyone else. As the Isaaq became more international and cosmopolitan, their commercial success and achievement ideology aroused suspicion and jealousy, notably among rural Darod who disliked Isaaq self-confidence and made them the target of stereotypes.[33]

This was not lost on the sole president and dictator of the Somali Democratic Republic (1969–1991), Siad Barre, Who disliked the Isaaq clan due to their financial independence, thus making it harder to control them:

Siyaad had a deep and personal dislike for the clan. The real reasons can only be guessed at, but in part it was due to his inability to control them. As accomplished business operatives, they had built a society that was not dependant on government largesse. The Isaaq had traditional trade relationships with the nations of the Arabian Peninsula that continued despite the attempts of the government to center all economic activity in Mogadishu. Siyaad did what he could, however, and Isaaq traders were forced to make the long trip to Mogadishu for permits and licenses.[34]

Nevertheless, in the 1970s and 1980s, nearly all of the livestock exports went out through the port of Berbera via Isaaq livestock traders. The entire livestock exports accounted to upwards of 90% of the Somali Republic’s entire export figures in a given year, and Berbera’s exports alone provided over 75% of the nation’s recorded foreign currency income at the time.[35][36]

Clan tree

Sultan Abdurahman Deria of the Habr Awal Isaaq receiving honours from Queen Elizabeth II in Aden

In the Isaaq clan-family, component clans are divided into two uterine divisions, as shown in the genealogy. The first division is between those lineages descended from sons of Sheikh Ishaaq by a Harari woman – the Habr Habuusheed – and those descended from sons of Sheikh Ishaaq by a Somali woman of the Magaadle sub-clan of the Dir – the Habr Magaadle. Indeed, most of the largest clans of the clan-family are in fact uterine alliances hence the matronymic “Habr” which in archaic Somali means “mother”.[37] This is illustrated in the following clan structure.[38]Warriors of the Habr Awal clan

A. Habr Magaadle

  • Ismail (Garhajis)
  • Ayub
  • Muhammad (Arap)
  • Abdirahman (Habr Awal)

B. Habr Habuusheed

  • Ahmed (Tol Je’lo)
  • Muuse (Habr Je’lo)
  • Ibrahiim (Sanbuur)
  • Muhammad (‘Ibraan)

Dualeh Abdi of the Musa Abokor Habr Je’lo tribe photographed in 1890

There is clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures that has not changed for a long time. The oldest recorded genealogy of a Somali in Western literature was by Sir Richard Burton in the mid–19th century regarding his Isaaq (Habr Yunis) host and the governor of ZeilaSharmarke Ali Saleh[39]

The following listing is taken from the World Bank‘s Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom’s Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.[40][41]

One tradition maintains that Isaaq had twin sons: Ahmed or Arap, and Ismail or Gerhajis.[42]

Notable figures

References

Last edited 3 hours ago bY Shakir Essa

RELATED ARTICLES

Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.

Get in touch with the shakir essa posts, videos, news article's, He is the presenter of both africa times news (sub saharan africa) and digital media creator(infographics video). shakir is a senior contributor at the africa times news (afrika-times.com

%d bloggers like this: